Think of an R Markdown File, or Rmd for short, as a command center. You write commands, then Knit the file, and an html output file is created according to your commands.

# Overview

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![](./Images/Rmd2html.png)

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There are six available sizes of headings you can use in an Rmd file (left in image) that show up as shown below (right in image). # Emphasizing Words

To italisize a word use the asterisk (Shift 8) *italisize*. To bold a word use the double asterisk **bold**. The back tic can be used tohighlightwords by placing back tics on each side of a word: highlight .

# Bullet Points

## Simple Lists

To achieve the result:

• This is the first item.

• This is the second.

• This is the third.

Use the code:

To achieve the result:

* This is the first item.

* This is the second.

* This is the third.

## Numbered Lists

To achieve the result:

1. This is the first item.

2. This is the second.

3. This is the third.

Use the code:

To achieve the result:

1. This is the first item.

2. This is the second.

3. This is the third.

## Lettered Lists

To achieve the result:

1. This is the first item.

2. This is the second.

3. This is the third.

Use the code:

To achieve the result:

A) This is the first item.

B) This is the second.

C) This is the third.

## Nested Lists

1. What is $$2+2$$?

1. 4

2. 8

2. What is $$3\times5$$?

1. 14

2. 15

1. What is $2+2$?

a. **4**

b. 8

2. What is $3\times5$?

a. 14

b. **15**

# Math Equations

Use the dollar signs $x=5$ to write $$x=5$$ or $z=\frac{x-\mu}{\sigma}$ to write $$z=\frac{x-\mu}{\sigma}$$. For a nicely centered equation use the double dollar signs  on separate lines

$$z = \frac{\bar{x}-\mu}{\frac{\sigma}{\sqrt{n}}}$$

to get $z = \frac{\bar{x}-\mu}{\frac{\sigma}{\sqrt{n}}}$

Or

$$H_0: \mu_\text{Group 1} = \mu_\text{Group 2}$$
$$H_a: \mu_\text{Group 1} \neq \mu_\text{Group 2}$$

to get $H_0: \mu_{\text{Group 1}} = \mu_{\text{Group 2}}$ $H_a: \mu_{\text{Group 1}} \neq \mu_{\text{Group 2}}$

Symbol list:

Symbol LaTeX Math Code
$$\alpha$$ $\alpha$
$$\beta$$ $\beta$
$$\sigma$$ $\sigma$
$$\epsilon$$ $\epsilon$
$$\bar{x}$$ $\bar{x}$
$$\hat{Y}$$ $\hat{Y}$
$$=$$ $=$
$$\ne$$ $\ne$ or $\neq$
$$>$$ $>$
$$<$$ $<$
$$\ge$$ $\ge$
$$\le$$ $\le$
$$\{ \}$$ $\{ \}$
$$\text{Type just text}$$ $\text{Type just text}$
$$\overbrace{Y_i}^\text{label}$$ $\overbrace{Y_i}^\text{label}$
$$\underbrace{Y_i}_\text{label}$$ $\underbrace{Y_i}_\text{label}$

Here is a list of all supported LaTeX commands.

# Insert a Picture

To add a picture to your document, say some notes you took down on paper from class,

Use the code: ![](./Images/insertPictureNotes.jpg) to get… # Tables

There are many ways to make tables in R Markdown. Here is a simple way to make a “pipe” table.

| Name          | Age           | Gender       |
|---------------|---------------|--------------|
| Jill          | 8             |  Female      |
| Jack          | 9             |  Male        |
Name Age Gender
Jill 8 Female
Jack 9 Male

# Themes

Notice in the YAML (at the top of the RMD file) there is a line that reads:

“theme: cerulean”

Other possible themes are

• “default”, “cerulean”, “journal”, “flatly”, “readable”, “spacelab”, “united”, and “cosmo”.

You can also change the highlighting by adding the line “highlight: tango” to the YAML as follows.

---
title: "Markdown Hints"
output:
html_document:
theme: cerulean
highlight: tango
---`

Other highlighting options are

• “default”, “tango”, “pygments”, “kate”, “monochrome”, “espresso”, “zenburn”, “haddock”, and “textmate”.